Franklin Historic District Design Guidelines

Historic District Design Guidelines Effective MAY 30, 2022

ACKNOWLEDGEmeNTS Franklin Historic District Design Guidelines The Franklin Historic District Design Guidelines (the Guidelines) were prepared by the City of Franklin Department of Planning & Sustainability in collaboration with Town Planning & Urban Design Collaborative, LLC and in partnershipwith theHistoric Zoning Commission and the Franklin community. Board of Mayor and Aldermen Ken Moore, Mayor Brandy Blanton, Vice Mayor, At-Large Beverly Burger, Ward 1 Matt Brown, Ward 2 Jason Potts, Ward 3 Patrick Baggett, Ward 4 Clyde Barnhill, At-Large Gabrielle Hanson, At-Large Ann Petersen, At-Large Franklin Historic Zoning Commission Jim Roberts, Chair Mary Pearce, Vice Chair Susan Besser Josh Denton Brian Laster Tyler LeMarinel Nick Mann, Franklin Municipal Planning Commission Representative Lisa Marquardt Kathy Worthington

Department of Planning & Sustainability Key Staff Emily Wright, Planning Director Kelly Dannenfelser, Assistant Director Amanda Rose, Project Lead, Preservation Planner Annette Dalrymple, Land Planner Victoria Hensley, Planner With Special Assistance From Alex Bearden, Development Services Operations Analyst Maricruz Fincher, Staff Attorney Vernon Gerth, Assistant City Administrator Shanna McCoy, Zoning & Floodplain Administrator Project Partners Town Planning & Urban Design Collaborative, LLC Brian Wright, Principal Jessica Wilson, Urban/Architectural Designer Becky Timmons, Director of Implementation Kenny Craft, Architectural Designer Bill Wright, Director of Coding and Land Use Gorica Zivak, Graphic Designer

Table of Contents CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������8 Purpose of the Guidelines �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 Effective Date ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Applicability of the Guidelines ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Projects Covered by the Guidelines ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Certificates of Appropriateness ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 12 Guidelines Overview ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Project Considerations ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Review and Approval Process ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Expiration of a COA ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20 Relationship to Other City Policies ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 20 Clerical Revisions ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20 CHAPTER 2. RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ���������������������������������������������������������������� 22 Historic Residential Buildings ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24 Additions to Historic Residential Buildings ������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Non-Historic Residential Buildings ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 46 New Residential Buildings �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 52 CHAPTER 3. COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS ������������������������������������������������������������� 62 Historic Commercial Buildings �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64 Additions to Historic Commercial Buildings ����������������������������������������������������������������� 74 Non-Historic Commercial Buildings ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 80 New Commercial Buildings ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 84 CHAPTER 4. CIVIC BUILDINGS ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 94 Historic Civic Buildings �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 96 Additions to Historic Civic Buildings ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 97 Non-Historic Civic Buildings ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 97 New Civic Buildings ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 98

CHAPTER 5. ACCESSORY STRUCTURES ������������������������������������������������������������� 102 Historic Accessory Structures ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 104 Non-Historic Accessory Structures ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 106 New Accessory Structures ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 107 CHAPTER 6. SITE & SETTING ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 114 Sidewalks & Walkways ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 116 Driveways & Parking ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 117 Streetscape ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 118 Lighting ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 118 Landscape & Topography ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 120 Other Site & Setting Alterations ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 120

Table of Contents CHAPTER 7. FENCES, WALLS, AND GATES ��������������������������������������������������������������122 General Design Principles ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 124 Design Principles Based on Location �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 125 Gates ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 127 Retaining Walls ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 127 CHAPTER 8. SIGNS ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������128 Historic Signs ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 130 Signs for Commercial Buildings ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 132 Signs for Residential Buildings ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 134 Signs for Civic Buildings ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 136 Signs for Residential Infill Neighborhoods ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 137 General Sign Guidelines ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 138 Specific Sign Guidelines ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 139 CHAPTER 9. MODERN FEATURES ����������������������������������������������������������������������������168 Mechanical & Communication Equipment ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 170 Fire Escapes & Staircases �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 171 Ramps & Lifts �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 172 Rooftop Features �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 173 Security Bars ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 173 Skylights ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 173 Solar Installation �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 174 Other Modern Features ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 175 CHAPTER 10. DEMOLITION AND RELOCATION ������������������������������������������������������176 Demolition by Neglect ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 178 Demolition Considerations ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 178 Demolition Approval Criteria �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 178 Economic Hardship Considerations ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 179 Relocation Considerations ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 180

CHAPTER 11. FRANKLIN’S HISTORIC RESOURCES ��������������������������������������������������182 Brief History of Franklin ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 184 Local Historic Districts ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 188 Local Landmarks ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 208 Historic District Architectural Styles ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 216 CHAPTER 12. GLOSSARY �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������230

FRANKLIN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES 8 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Guidelines �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 Effective Date ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Applicability of the Guidelines ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Projects Covered by the Guidelines ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Certificates of Appropriateness ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 12 Guidelines Overview ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Project Considerations ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Review and Approval Process ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Expiration of a COA ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20 Relationship to Other City Policies ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 20 Clerical Revisions ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20

EFFECTIVE MAY 30, 2022 9

FRANKLIN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES 10 introduction  Purpose of the Guidelines Franklin is nationally recognized for its diverse historic and architectural resources, spanning its award-winning Main Street, late-19th and early-to-mid-20th-century neighborhoods, historic cemeteries, rural farmsteads and corridors, archaeological sites, and Civil War resources. The preservation of these resources is of paramount importance to protecting Franklin’s unique heritage and cultural identity. Preservation planning nurtures a sense of community, protects and fosters sense of place, and is environmentally responsible. The preservation of these buildings and resources offers quantifiable benefits such as the continued development of the economy for heritage tourism, greater neighborhood governance over development, the creation of jobs, and the stabilization and appreciation of property values. Franklin’s Historic Preservation Program promotes the identification, evaluation, rehabilitation, adaptive reuse, and restoration of the City’s historic, architectural, and archaeological heritage. The City uses Historic Preservation Overlay District (HPO) zoning as a planning tool to manage growth and change for local landmarks and historic districts. Within the HPO, the Franklin Historic District Design Guidelines (the Guidelines) provide guidance that supports the preservation of historic resources and ensures compatible design when considering exterior alterations. The Guidelines inform the design review process by outlining contextual considerations and parameters for alterations to the built environment that will be sensitive to the community’s heritage and not result in material impairment to a historic resource or district. The Guidelines address best case preservation theory and practices, which address most situations. While the Guidelines are not regulatory, theHistoric Zoning Commission (HZC) has been appointed to consider exterior alterations within the HPO in light of these Guidelines. The Guidelines have been developed to reflect the intent of The Secretary of Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties (the Standards).The Standards provide guidance on the appropriate treatment of historic properties and are organized into four treatment approaches: preservation, restoration, rehabilitation, and reconstruction. Of these, the rehabilitation treatment provides the broadest and most flexible approach. In addition to the Guidelines, the Standards may be applied to proposals within the HPO, as applicable. The complete list of each treatment’s set of standards can be accessed through the National Park Service website.

chapter 1 EFFECTIVE MAY 30, 2022 11 Effective Date The HZC recommended approval of the Guidelines on April 11, 2022. The Board of Mayor and Aldermen (BOMA) adopted the Guidelines on May 24, 2022, which became effective on May 30, 2022. All Certificate of Appropriateness (COA) applications submitted on or after May 30, 2022 will be subject to these Guidelines. An applicant with a pending COA application as of the effective date may waive review under the previous Guidelines and request review under these Guidelines. Applicability of the Guidelines The Guidelines are applicable to properties within the HPO, which includes the City of Franklin's local historic districts and landmarks, many of which are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The City of Franklin Historic Preservation Program website has maps of the HPO and the individual historic districts. See Chapter 11, Franklin's Historic Resources, for further information. Photo Credit: Kristina Bell

FRANKLIN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES 12 introduction  Projects Covered by the Guidelines Projects covered by the Guidelines include the following exterior alterations to buildings, structures, or sites: • Construction of new buildings or structures; • Additions to buildings or structures, such as enclosed additions, porches, stoops, Porte cocheres, and decks; • Alterations or repair of existing buildings or structures for which a building permit is required; • Window alterations or replacement; • Siding or masonry alterations, excluding minor in-kind repair; • Roofing alterations, excluding in-kind repair; • Dormers; • Awnings and canopies; • Painting of unpainted masonry; • Site elements such as fences and walls, sidewalks and walkways, driveways and parking areas, lighting, etc.; • Signs; • Modern features on the building or installed on the property, such as mechanical equipment, communications equipment, fire escapes and exterior staircases, ramps and lifts, rooftop features, security bars, skylights, and solar installation; • Interior alterations that affect the exterior appearance of buildings; • Partial or wholesale demolition of buildings, structures, or historic site features; and • Relocation of buildings or structures. Certificates of Appropriateness A Certificate of Appropriateness (COA) is required for all exterior alterations covered by the Guidelines. In many instances, the project may then require other permits prior to commencing construction. For example, awnings also require building permits and signs also require a sign permit, while sandwich board signs require additional permitting as regulated by the Municipal Code. Yet other projects may require a site plan review prior to issuance of building permits.

EFFECTIVE MAY 30, 2022 13 chapter 1 Please contact the Preservation Planner in the Department of Planning & Sustainability before making repairs or conducting work to determine the appropriate process. Guidelines Overview Understanding the Framework The Guidelines are organized into Chapters based on residential, commercial, civic, and accessory building forms. Each Chapter has sections that provide guidance for preservation considerations and alterations to historic buildings, additions to historic buildings, alterations and additions to non-historic buildings, and for new building construction. These are found in Chapters 2 through 5. Chapter 6 contains guidance on site and setting considerations, including sidewalks, walkways, driveways and parking, streetscape, lighting, and landscape and topography. Chapters 7 through 9 cover fences and walls, signs, and modern features. The goal of these Chapters is to ensure that site and setting changes are respectful to the context of the building, its setting, and the surrounding historic district. Part of the HZC's responsibility for locally designated historic districts is careful review of demolition and relocation requests for historic structures. Chapter 10 provides guidance to consider for these requests and are limited to extraordinary circumstances. Chapter 11 contains descriptions of Franklin’s locally and nationally designated historic districts and landmarks. This Chapter also includes an overview of key architectural styles typically found within Franklin’s historic districts. Chapter 12 contains the glossary for definitions of words used throughout the Guidelines. When a word is not defined in the glossary, any nationally accepted English dictionary may be used to obtain the definition. Determining the Appropriate Building Form Guidance Guidance for exterior alterations of sites and buildings differs by the type of building. Determining whether to apply the Residential, Commercial, Civic Building, or Accessory Structure Chapter for guidance should be based on any existing buildings on the property, the context of the streetscape, the site and setting of the property, and the character and type of surrounding building forms.

FRANKLIN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES 14 introduction  Residential buildings were originally constructed as residences and typically have pitched roof forms, although certain residential buildings may contain commercial uses, as regulated by the Zoning Ordinance. Commercial buildings typically have flat roofs and parapet walls, and were originally constructed for nonresidential purposes. Civic buildings are typically associated with civic and institutional uses, including government, religious, educational, and other public purposes. They are often unique and highly recognizable landmarks that relate to their surroundings. When considering changes or additions to an existing building in the historic district, the appropriate guidance will be found in the Chapter that most closely addresses the form of the original building to which the exterior alterations are being proposed. Within each Chapter, guidance is divided into sections. Guidance for alterations to historic buildings is provided in the Historic Section, guidance for additions is found within the Additions Section, and guidance for alterations and additions to non-historic buildings is found within the NonHistoric Section. The character and form of surrounding historic buildings should influence the design of new buildings within the historic district. In some locations, new buildings should be designed using commercial building guidance. In other locations, new buildings intended for commercial use would better blend with the established character if designed using the new residential building guidance. Guidance for new civic buildings should only be used for civic and institutional uses, per the Zoning Ordinance, but given its context, a civic building may need to blend in with surrounding residential or rural character. Guidance for new buildings is found within the New Buildings Section of the applicable Chapter. Please consult with the Preservation Planner for assistance in determining the applicable building form guidance.

EFFECTIVE MAY 30, 2022 15 chapter 1 Project Considerations Preservation Considerations This flowchart provides the appropriate order for consideration of treatment approaches. Since it is important to maintain as much historic integrity as possible, preserving and maintaining a feature is the priority. If preservation is not possible, it is better to repair a feature rather than replace it so as to maintain a higher degree of integrity for the historic property. Exterior alterations should not impair the historic integrity of buildings, site features, or the historic districts.

FRANKLIN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES 16 introduction  Locating Facade Alterations A property’s architectural style and design are defined by its main facades that face the public viewsheds. The variety of architectural styles represented within the individual historic districts, and in the HPO in general, help create a particular character and sense of place for Franklin. Visibility is an important consideration when locating facade alterations. The visibility of front, side, and rear facades differ from property to property, depending on factors such as location within a block, setbacks, and overall form of the building. Because of this, certain alterations that may be appropriate on one particular site may not be appropriate for another site. The preservation of historic buildings and careful consideration of alterations to historic buildings are crucial to maintaining the integrity of the historic district. The presence of landscaping is not considered when evaluating visibility and proposed alterations to buildings, structures, or site features. For most historic resources, the front facade is the most important to preserve intact. Many side facades are also important to preserve where they are highly visible from public streets. Historically, rear facades and backyards have served as more private spaces, where additional porches, building additions, and accessory structures were built where that they were not readily visible to the public. A higher degree of change on the rear facade may be more appropriate without causing negative effects to the historic building and setting. The next page features an illustrated evaluation of where facade alterations may be considered.

EFFECTIVE MAY 30, 2022 17 chapter 1 Front Facade: Most important to preserve intact Highly Visible Side Facade: Important to preserve intact Lesser Visible Side Facade: May be important to preserve Rear Facade: Alterations may generally occur more easily 1 1 2 3 4 2 3 4

FRANKLIN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES 18 introduction  Compatibility of New Construction An important component of historic district integrity is ensuring that new development is compatible with the historic resources within it. New buildings should reflect the key characteristics of the historic district in which they are proposed. New buildings should be designed to be secondary in prominence to the historic structures on the site and in the district. New buildings should not block the view of historic buildings from public viewsheds so that the historic buildings retain their prominence. Review and Approval Process There are several review processes related to COA applications in the HPO. The following subsections further describe the various reviews. Please consult the City’s ApplicationUser Guide formore information on submitting an application. COA Review by the Historic Zoning Commission The Historic Zoning Commission (HZC) reviews most projects, but authorizes the Preservation Planner to administratively review and approve certain minor alterations with an Administrative COA. The HZC reviews COA applications for consistency with the Guidelines. The HZC is composed of nine citizen appointees who represent the disciplines of architecture, history or historic preservation, the local planning commission, and the community in general. The mission of the HZC is to preserve and protect Franklin’s historic resources through identification, designation, and design review. The HZC meets monthly to consider COA applications and issues COAs to proposals that it finds to meet the intent of the Guidelines. Conditions of approval may be imposed if the intent of the conditions is to uphold the general purpose and intent of the Guidelines. Administrative COA Review The Preservation Planner may administratively approve minor alterations that do not affect the exterior appearance of a property in a substantial manner if the proposal complies with the Guidelines. At his or her discretion, the Preservation Planner may also refer the proposal to the HZC for review. Minor alterations eligible for Administrative COA approval include the following: • Signs; • Awning installation and replacement; • Rear yard fencing;

EFFECTIVE MAY 30, 2022 19 chapter 1 • Mechanical equipment installation and screening; • Minor alterations to non-historic components on rear or obscured facades of historic or non-historic structures that enhance the compatibility with the context of the individual historic district (examples include rear doors, non-historic window replacement, or similar, but do not include any footprint or roofline alterations). Design Review Committee Applicants are encouraged to participate in a review by the Design Review Committee (DRC) prior to submitting a formal application for a COA or Preliminary HZC Recommendation. The DRC is composed of members of the HZC. The DRC is available to help guide applicants through the approval process and answers questions about proposals in relation to the Guidelines. This collaborative review with the applicant, committee members, and staff helps to streamline the overall design review process by resolving most design issues prior to formal review by the HZC. The DRC provides informal feedback that is non-binding on the DRC, the HZC, and the applicant. While participation is voluntary and encouraged for any interested applicants, those representing complex proposals such as new construction, additions, or demolitions are especially encouraged to attend the DRC prior to submitting an application for HZC review and approval. Preliminary HZC Recommendations The HZC provides a preliminary recommendation at an early stage in the review process for development plans, preliminary plats, and final plats that create new lots. These recommendations are then provided to the FMPC and BOMA, as applicable. The HZC reviews the proposals in light of the Guidelines for consistency with the historic district and potential impact to historic resources within the district. Considerations include building locations, the rhythm of buildings along streetscapes, lot widths and sizes, and setbacks, as well as building types, height, massing, and scale. Locations of proposed parking, drive aisles, and landscape and hardscape features are also reviewed. Applicants are encouraged to submit their proposals for DRC review prior to HZC consideration.

FRANKLIN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES 20 introduction  Expiration of a COA COAs are valid for two years from the dates of their issuance. A single sixmonth extension may be granted by the Preservation Planner for work that has not yet commenced so long as the request is made in writing prior to the COA expiration date and the approved scope of work has not changed. For projects considered “vested” by the Zoning Ordinance, COAs are valid for the duration of the vesting period. Relationship to Other City Policies The Guidelines reflect the City’s goal to preserve its historic resources while promoting economic development. The Guidelines help to implement the broad policy and regulations of several City documents, including Envision Franklin, the Preservation Plan, the Franklin Zoning Ordinance, and the Franklin Parks Master Plan. The Guidelines may be periodically updated as other City policies and ordinances are updated to ensure consistency. Clerical Revisions The Department of Planning and Sustainability is authorized to make administrative clerical revisions to the document text so long as the changes are not substantive, such as cleaning up tables, clerical word corrections, typographical errors, table of contents adjustments, header and footer adjustments, font adjustments, amending graphics and supporting explanations based on approved document text, and adding or correcting references.

EFFECTIVE MAY 30, 2022 21 chapter 1

FRANKLIN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES 22 Chapter 2. residential buildings Historic Residential Buildings ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24 Additions to Historic Residential Buildings ������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Non-Historic Residential Buildings ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 46 New Residential Buildings �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 52

EFFECTIVE MAY 30, 2022 23 This Chapter provides guidance for all residential buildings in Franklin's historic districts. Residential buildings include forms that typically have a pitched roof and were originally constructed as residences, although certain residential buildings may contain commercial uses, as regulated by the Zoning Ordinance. This Chapter presents an overview of preservation of historic residential buildings, including maintenance and repair, replacement, and alterations. It provides guidance on additions to historic residential buildings, additions and alterations to non-historic residential buildings, and guidance for the construction of new residential buildings in Franklin’s historic districts.

FRANKLIN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES 24 Residential Buildings Historic Residential Buildings This Section provides guidelines for preservation, repairs, replacements, and alterations related to historic residential buildings in Franklin’s historic districts. Historic residential buildings contribute to the street, the neighborhood, and the historic district. Historic residential buildings are considered “contributing properties” in the historic district because they are found to be from a specific period of significance and have enough of their original features and character intact to retain integrity. In most cases, alterations to contributing properties are held to a higher standard of review than non-contributing properties. Placement & Orientation ��������������������� 25 Building Form ��������������������������������������� 25 Roofs ���������������������������������������������������� 25 Porches, Stoops, & Porte Cocheres ����� 25 Foundations ���������������������������������������� 26 Materials & Exterior Finishes �������������� 26 Details & Ornamentation ��������������������� 29 Entrances ��������������������������������������������� 29 Windows ���������������������������������������������� 30 Shutters ������������������������������������������������ 31 Awnings ������������������������������������������������ 31 Dormers ����������������������������������������������� 32 Chimneys ��������������������������������������������� 33 Gutters & Downspouts ������������������������ 33 Modern Features ��������������������������������� 33 Historic Residential Buildings

EFFECTIVE MAY 30, 2022 25 chapter 2 Placement & Orientation • Preserve the placement and orientation of a historic building within its setting and context. Building Form • Maintain the historic building shape, mass, scale, proportion, rhythm, and roof shapes. • Preserve historic building elements that contribute to building style and historic character. Roofs • Preserve historic roof forms and materials. Roofing sections on main and other visible facades should remain unaltered. See the Dormers subheading for guidance on dormers. • If localized damage occurs, replace the damaged materials only. If partial or wholesale replacement is needed, use materials whose composition and appearance match the historic materials. Porches, Stoops, & Porte Cocheres • Preserve and maintain the location and configuration of original porches, stoops, and Porte cocheres. • Preserve original elements and materials, such as columns, flooring, railings, and decorative trim. • Maintain and repair deteriorated porch elements as needed and with materials that match the original materials. Aluminum or metal replacements are discouraged but may be used to replace deteriorated wood porch columns on rear facades. • Avoid enclosing porches on highly visible facades with screens, glass, or

FRANKLIN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES 26 Residential Buildings Historic Residential Buildings any other material. • If enclosure of porches on side or rear facades is desired, use screen or glass panels with the minimum number of vertical and horizontal framing members needed to support the screening and recess panels behind existing porch columns and rails. Use wooden frames only, and do not remove any historic elements to accommodate enclosure. • Avoid installing porch railings on porches where railings were not historically present unless required for safety or access reasons. Required railings should be simple in design with square balusters. • Avoid adding architectural features that are not original to the historic porch. These features include alterations such as the addition of limestone caps to steps, pilasters, and decorative molding. • Preserve and maintain original concrete, brick, or wooden stairs. If needed, repair or replace original wooden, brick, or concrete stairs with matching materials. If pre-cast or pre-formed concrete stairs are desired, use them only where not readily visible from the street. • Avoid enclosing a Porte cochere, as it changes the overall character of the building. Foundations • Preserve and maintain original foundations. • Avoid obscuring historic foundations or applying artificial materials such as stone veneers, aluminum, or vinyl siding. • If the building has piers and enclosure is desired, enclose foundations with masonry to match the original, but leave the original piers visible. Materials & Exterior Finishes Wood • Maintain and preserve historic wood siding, shingles, weatherboard, board-and-batten, and other historic wooden elements. Do not cover or conceal historic wooden elements.